Tuesday, June 23, 2009

King Tribhuvan and fall of the Ranas

KING TRIBHUVAN BIR BIKRAM SHAH'S ASCEND TO THRONE
After the death of his father, Tribhuvan Bir Birkarm Shah ascended the throne on 20th February 1913, at the age of five. Queen Mother Laxmi Dibeswari Devi was appointed the regent until King Tribhuvan would come to his age.
BHIM SHUMSHER
After the death of Chandra Shumsher on 25th November 1929 A.D., his brother, Bhim Shumsher became the Prime Minister and "Shree Teen" of Nepal. He was a devotee of Lord Rama. He had 28 years' experience as the Commander-in-Chief and Chief Officer of State Administration under his brother Chandra Shumsher. He, at first showed a very liberal tendency and the people were glad to find such a ruler after the harsh rule of Chandra Shumsher. But he grew harsher as time passed on. People were severely dealt with even on the mere report of spying. He brought drastic changes in the role of succession. He appointed Juddha Shumsher in the post of "Mukhtiyar" and Dharma Shumsher as "Jangi Lath". he made Hiranya Shumsher "Hazuria" General and Ram Shumsher became Major General. Ram Shumsher also became the chief of the Police Department. Bhim Shumsher appointed his four grandsons in the posts of Major-General.
The main events during Bhim Shumshers regime can be summed up as under.
Bhim Shumsher's attitude towards Tibet and India: There was a trouble between Tibet and Nepal during his rule. A war was about to break out. While Bhim Shumsher was preparing for war, a peace proposal was negotiated through the British Government in India. As a result of this treaty, Bhim Shumsher was benefitted, for he had appropriated 25 million rupees for war. In 1931 A.D. Bhim Shumsher visited India and strongly supported British rule in India. Many Indian newspapers gave importance to his Indian visit. After his visit to India, Bhim Shumsher was honoured by Italian and Chinese governments. He accepted the honour and informed the British India Government about it.
The Charkha incident: Imitating the Charkha campaign launched by Mahatma Gandhi in India, Tulsi Mehar started to spread the use of Charkha (spinning wheel) throughout the valley in 1930 A.D. Bhim Shumsher felt the widespread use of Charkha would cause trouble to the Rana rulers. So, he charged Tulsi Mehar with treason and arrested him.

The Library incident: Some young men of Kathmandu under the leadership of Jagbir Singh had acquired permission to open a Public Library from Bhim Shumsher. They prepared a draft plan for the library and submitted it for approval to Bhim Shumsher. But, a person called Ram Chandra Adhikari, reported against them to the Prime Minister saying that the library might arouse the people against the Ranas. As a result, forty five people were arrested including Jagbir Singh, Hari Krishna Shrestha, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, Dharma Raj Thapalia, Krishna Prasad Khatiwda and Chittadhar Upashak. They were fined Rs. 100/- each. Half of the amount of the time was given to Ram Chandra Adhikari, as a reward.
Pranchanda Gorkha incident: In 1931 A.D., Umesh Bikram Shah, Capt. Khanda Man Singh Basnet, Maina Bahadur, Khadga Man singh, Ranga Nath Sharma and some other people organised an underground political party called the "Prachanda Gorkha". It was formed with a view to bringing about a change in the administrative system of the country. When the secrecy of the party was disclosed, Umesh Bikram Shah, Maina Bahadur, Khadga Man Singh, Captain Khanda Man Singh Basnet and Ranga Nath were arrested, Whipped and tortured. The Ranas proved them guilty of treason and they were sentenced to life imprisonment. Umes Bikram Shah was sent to Palpa "under chains". He was kept in "bamboo cage" especially made for him and was carried by the Army. Others were kept in Central Jail as prisoners. Khanda Man Singh died in the Jail.
Basanta Shumsher's incident: General Basanta Shumsher, the son of Padma Shumsher ands grandson of Bhim Shumsher, attempted to produce for personal use "Subarna Bhasma" , an Ayurvedic medicine. For its preparation charcoal was needed in large quantity. Basanta Shumsher went to Sundarijal together with the apparatus. General Hiranya Shumsher and Ram Shumsher, the illegitimate sons of Bhim Shumsher reported to Bhim Shumsher that Basanta was attempting to produce bombs and other explosives against the Prime Minister. So, Bhim Shumsher arrested Basanta Shumsher and expelled him, his own grandson, from the role of succession.

REFORMS OF BHIM SHUMSHER
During his 33 months of prime ministership Bhim shumsher brought many reforms for the welfare of the people. He exempted the imposition of duties on salt, cotton and live-stock, and encouraged cotton plantations. He sent 'Ukhada Janch Commission' to bring about a change in the Zamindari system in Butwal. Ukhada Janch Commission worked under General Tej Shumsher. But that commission's survey work was incomplete. He arranged for a good supply of drinking water in Kathmandu. He declared every Saturday a holiday. The working hours of offices were also fixed from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. He also passed an order for the suspension of Capital Punishment in the country in 1931 A.D. He upgraded the middle school of Patan and Bhaktapur to high school standard.
He built palaces for the members of his family and gave them lands. He also deposited money in foreign banks. He listed his illegitimate sons and grandsons on the "role of succession". He died on 1st September 1932 A.D.

JUDDHA SHUMSHER
According to the order of succession, Juddha Shumsher succeeded Bhim Shumsher on 1st September 1932 A.D., as the Prime Minister. He was fearless, courageous and generous, and a man of national pride. He ruled for 13 years and led Nepal on the path of progress and prosperity. When he began to rule he had to face many problems and difficulties.
On 14th January 1934, at about 2 P.M. (1990 B.S.), a dreadful earthquake occurred in Nepal which caused a heavy loss in men and material. According to the available figure 8519 people died and 15000 were seriously injured and 27740 houses were badly damaged. Dharahara, the clock tower and many temples and roads were also damaged. Juddha Shumsher established a relief committee. That committee provided interest free loan to the relief fund. Some amount was drawn from the Pashupatinath temple trust and the rest were drawn from the state treasury. Some temples and public offices like Dharahara and the Clock Tower which collapsed during the earthquake were restored to their former shape. New buildings and roads were also constructed in Kathmandu. An amount of Rs. 2982316 was spent in relief works. Later, Juddha Shumsher announced the cancellation of all debts. Those who had partly repaid the loan also got a refund.
On 18th March 1934 A.D. Juddha Shumsher expelled all the "C" class Ranas from the roll of succession. The illegitimate sons of Bir Shumsher, and the sons and grandsons of Bhim Shumsher had risen to the position superior to those of "A" class. Rudra Shumsher, for example, had risen to the post of C-in-C. Juddha Shumsher sent him away as Governor to Palpa, Hiranya Shumsher was made chief administrator at Dhankuta, Pratap Shumsher at Ilam and Ram shumsher at Mahottari.

JUDDHA SHUMSHER AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR
In 1939, the second world war broke out. Germany, England, China, Japan and other countries prepared for war. The brave Gorkhali Solders had shown their bravery and courage in the 1st World War. So France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, China and other countries of the world wanted to keep friendly relation with Nepal. Many countries offered honours and tilles to Juddha Shumsher. But, Nepal took the side of Great Britain. To strengthen their relations with Nepal, Britain allowed Nepal to send an Ambassador to Great Britain. Accordingly, Bahadur Shumsher, the eldest son of Juddha Shumsher, was sent as the first residential Nepalese Ambassador to Great Britain. Juddha Shumsher decided to help British Government and on 8th November 1939 he sent two regiments, each with 8 thousand soldiers, under the joint command of General Ekraj Shumsher and General Brahma Shumsher who showed uncommon bravery in Burma, Egypt. Sudan, Singapore, Iraly, Iraq, Iran and many other places. Ten Nepalese soldiers were decorated with the V.C. (Victoria Cross), the highest award for bravery in Britain. After the end of the war, the commander-in-Chief of the British Indian Army came to Nepal. A march past was held in his honour. At that time, he was decorated with the title of "Nepal Tara". During that ceremony Juddha Shumsher announced that he had established a fund of three Lakhs of Rupees to help the Army personnel during mergency.

THE BEGINING OF REVOLUTION AGAINST THE RANAS :
In 1939 A.D 'Praja Parishad', an underground political party was format to bring the Rana regime to an end. When Juddha Shumsher came to know of it, he arrested most of the leaders of the Parishad. Four of them, Dharma Bhakta ,Sukra Raj Shastri, Dasarath Chand and Ganga Lal Shrestha were sentenced to death. Tanka Prasad Acharya, Ram Hari, Chuda Prasad and Govinda Prasad being Brahmans were sentenced to life-imprisonment. Similarly, the workers of the "Nagarik Adhabir High School also were imprisoned and the properties of the prisoners were confiscated. Chinia Lal died in Jail. Poet Siddhi Charan was given 12 years imprisonment and Arya Samaj members Madav Raj Joshi and Tulsi Mehar were also punished. According to her court decision Sukra Raj Sastri was hanged to death over a tree at Teku, Dharma Bhakta was hanged at Sifal, Dasarath Chand and Ganga Lal were shot near Sobha Bhagabati temple. Juddha Shumsher slipped away form Kathmandu on the plea of hunting, so that he might not be held responsible for all these activities. The sons of Chandra Shumsher were ultimately blamed for the death and imprisonment of these political leaders.

REFORMS OF JUDDHA SHUMSHER
During his Prince Ministership of 13 years, Juddha Shumsher brought about many forms. He provide more water taps in Kathmandu and tube wells in the terai. A Zoo in Jawalakhel was built and he established the Fire Brigade for the first time.
He set up an Agricultural Committee for the development of agriculture in the country. He started co-operative bank to give loans at two percent interest. An Agricultural School was established to give education and training to the farmers on improved methods of agriculture. Be keeping and cotton plantations were encouraged. He introduced the use of home made clothes. A Forest Office was established for the preservation of forests and wild-life. Deforestation was discouraged and a new scheme was prepared for afforestation.
Juddha Shumsher caused much development in commerce and industry. A new Company Act was enacted and Biratnagar Jute Mill, Cotton Mills, Juddha Match Factory, Nepal Sabun Karyalaya, and other limited companies were started. During his prime ministership 21 mills and factories were set up. For the first time a bank, Nepal Bank Limited, was established. He spend 6 Lakh of rupees for the Hydro Electric Project at Sundarijal. Udyog Parishad, Bekar Sahayak Sanstha, and Bureau of Mines and the Himalaya Miners' Syndicate were also established. Juddha Shumsher established the Public Works Department. He constructed the roads from Dharan to Jogbani, Butwal to Nautanawa and the road from Dhulikhel to Tokha was broadened. Trolleys ran from Matarirtha to Teku. He also broadened the Juddha Sadak (New Road) and Putali Sadak of Kathmandu. Trains ran from Jayanagar to Janakpur. The postal systems was re-organised. Nepali stamps were recognised by foreign countries. The telephone service was also introduced. Biratnagar, Dhankuta, Dharan and Jhapa were connected to Kathmandu with telephone lines. He introduced Nepali Currency Notes as well.

A High Court was established in Kathmandu. Pensions were given to government servants after their retirement. He made reforms in the Army also. The Kathmandu Military School was re-organised. An age limit was fixed for recruiting soldiers in the army. He curtailed the unnecessary expenses in social functions and ceremonies by issuing and ordinance. The mourning period on the death of parents was also reduced from 45 to 13 days.
Juddha showed interest in the spread of education. Since 1934, Nepalese students have been able to appear in the Matriculation Examination in Nepal. The Matriculation examination was officially recognized from his time. He started science class in Tri Chandra College. Compounders and overseers began to be trained. Physical training and sports were introduced in schools and colleges. "Nepali Bhasa Prakashini Samiti" was formed, and, the Nepali language was recognized in Indian Universities. The Gorkhapatra was made a bi-weekly paper, and other magazines like `Sarada' and `Udyog' were also published.
Juddha Shumsher was a liberal man. He was fond of games, shooting and hunting. He always respected learned and educated men. He wanted to develop the Nepali Language and literature, arts, industries and trade. He wanted to make matrimonial relation with Royal family. In 1904 A. D. Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi, the Grand daughter of Juddha Shumsher and daughter of Hari Shumsher was married to Crown Prince Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev.
On 29th November 1945 A. D., Juddha Shumsher called an official meeting at Singha Durbar. On the meeting he announced the he had resigned from the post of Prime Ministership and entrusted the job of administration to his nephew Padma Shumsher. He declared that his desire was to go to the forest for the peace of his soul. Then he took out the crown from his head and put it on the head of his successor, Padma Shumsher. Then Juddha Shumsher went to Ridi and began to live there as a Rishi. After some time, he moved to Dehradun. He died at Dehradun.

PADMA SHUMSHER
Padma Shumsher succeeded Juddha Shumsher. He was the son of Bhim Shumsher. Padma Shumsher was a quick minded man. He was a man of liberal sentiments but he lacked determination. He was simple-minded and of a peaceful temperament. He was also a reformist. He used to say "I am the servant of the people".
In India, the British government was making final preparation was making final preparation to hand over the power to the people of India. That development influenced Nepalese power to the people of India. That development influenced Nepalese leaders as well. Nepali leaders began to work against Rana rule. Prime Minister Padma Shumsher studied that situation. He turned his attention to the welfare of the people for the safe of Rana rule. But Mukhtiar Mohan Shumsher believed in despotic rule.
POLITICAL AGITATIONS DURING PADMA SHUMSHER'S RULE
By that time India had become independent. So a new wave of consciousness swept over Nepal as well. The Nepalese residing in India were inspired by the Indian Movement for Freedom struggle and their achievements, and formed themselves into parties and organisations to launch a freedom movement against the Ranas in Nepal. Biratnagar Hartal, which was launched on 4th March, 1947 was the first movement against the Ranas. It was backed by the Nepali National Congress. The wave of freedom movements spread to Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan as well. Some young men under the leadership of Prem Bahadur Kansakar formed themselves into a voluntary corps and also opened a library known as `Pradipta Pustakalaya' with a view to awakening the masses. The Nepal National League was formed under the leadership of Gopal Prasad Rimal. Student from `Sanskrit Pathshala' also staged demonstrations. In order to pacify the people on 26th January 1948 A. D. he called a general meeting of Government officers, traders, industrialists, saints, religious men and social workers at his residence at Bisal Nagar. In that meeting, he announced that some constitutional reform would be made.

He established a Reform Committee and also invited from India some constitutional experts to frame the constitution. A constitutional advisory body under the leadership of Shri Prakash came to Nepal. The members of this `Team of three' were Shri Prakash, Dr. Ram Ugra Singh and Raghunath Singh. Thus, Padma Shumsher published country's first written constitution in 1948 (2004 B. S.). The government of Nepal Act 1948 provided the people with fundamental rights and established an executive council, legislative assembly, independent court of justice, publication of the National Budget etc. The Government of Nepal Act gave some rights to the people but the power of legislators were very limited. The Prime Minister was invested with the power of veto which very limited. The Prime Minister was invested with the power of veto which he could use at any time.
A diplomatic and commercial treaty was signed between Nepal and the U.S.A. Diplomatic relations were also established with free India. Simha Shumsher was appointed as the first Nepalese ambassador to India..

REFORMS OF PADMA SHUMSHER
Padma Shumsher attempted to spread mass education in Nepal. He established "Basic-Education School". He was in fovour of educating girls and established Padma Kanya High School which became a college later. A literary conference was help for the first time during his regime under the auspices of 'sahitya Parishad' which was established by the effort of Kedar Man Byathit. Laxmi Prasad Devkota, the famous poet of Nepali literature, presided over the conference.
He fixed the office hours for summer at 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. and for winter 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. He also gave D.A. (dearness allowance) to the soldiers and civil sevants. The first municipal Election in Kathmandu was held during his regime.
The friendly spirit and liberal tendencies of Padma Shumsher alarmed a group of conservative Ranas. Shortly after the announcement of constitutional reforms he left for Ranchi (India), on the pretext of medical treatment. Mohan Shumsher did not wait for the resignation of Padma Shumsher, so he moved to occupy the official residence of prime minister at Singha Durbar. In April, 1948 Padma Shumsher was forced to resign. Padma Shumsher died in 1950 A.D. in Calcutta.
MOHAN SHUMSHER
In April 1984, when Padma Shumsher resigned, Mohan Shumsher became the Prime Minister in order of succession. The first thing he did as a Prime Minister was to declare the Nepali Congress illegal. He circulated several orders to cancel the Constitution given by Padma Shumsher on 26th January 1948. Thus, he deprived the people of fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of 1948.
During that time, British government had already left India and the government of Indian National Congress was firmly established in India. The Indian government was not in favour of autocrat Ranas. The Indian government advised Mohan Shumsher to rule in democratic way. But he did not listen to Indian advice. During the regime of Mohan Shumsher, Nepal did not achieve any remarkable progress. Except for the circulation of new stamps on which Nepali culture was depicted, Mohan Shumsher did nothing. During his rule, Ranarchy was very strong and the struggle for freedom from Ranarchy was also active. Ultimately, he had to surrender before the people and the king. The end of his rule marked the beginning of democracy in the kingdom of Nepal.
ARYA SAMAJ
During the rule of Bir Shumsher, Madhav Raj Joshi, the father of Shukra Raj, the martyr, established an office of Arya Samaj at Kathmandu, Madhav Raj Joshi was influenced by Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj (a religious society) in India. Madhav Raj started propagating his doctrine in Nepal, but during the rule of Chandra Shumsher, the office of Arya Samaj was closed and Madhav Raj was arrested. Chandra Shumsher was afraid that the preaching of the doctrines of Arya Samaj might lead to the awakening of the people. When Madhav Raj was released, he went to India and opened an office of Arya Samaj at Darjeeling.
Later on, the other two sons of Madhav Raj, Namely, Amar Raj and Bakpati Raj, came to Kathmandu from India. Under their leadership. Fatte Bahadur, Chandra Man Maske, Tulsi Mehar and Chakra Bahadur Amatya, opened an office of Arya Samaj. Again, some of the members of the Arya Samaj were arrested. So, they formed another society named `Malami Guthi' and started preaching the doctrine of the Arya Samaj. When the activities of the Malami Guthi were known to the Prime Minister, Amar Raj and Bakpati Raj were exiled from the country.
THE GORKHA LEAGUE
The Gorkha soldiers who returned form foreign countries after the first World War (1914 to 1918), were political conscious. So, some of the enthusiastic young men engaged themselves in the task of awakening the people. Accordingly, the `Gorkha League' was formed under the leadership of Chandan Shing at Dehradun in 1927 A.D. Chandan Singh published `Gorkha Sansar' and `Tarun Gorkha' in which articles were published criticising the Rana rulers of Nepal. Similarly, Krishna Lal Published a book entitled 'Makaiko Kheti' during the rule of Chandra Shumsher. In the introduction of this book he wrote 'foreign dogs were better treated would not do as good a service as the street dogs of Nepal to drive away thieves and robbers.' For this satirical remarks he was imprisoned for 9 years. He was the first man who wrote against the Rana rule. He died in the jail.
NAGARIK ADHIKAR SAMITI:
During the regime of Juddha Shumsher, a committee for civil rights, known as ' Nagarik Adhikar Samiti' was formed. Shukra raj Shastri, Kedar Nath Byathit. Ganga Lal Shrestha and Murlidhar were its active members. Shukra Raj Shastri was soon arrested on the charge that he had met Mahatma Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malaviya, the great leaders of India, during his stay in India in connection with the publication of his book, The other members of the committee rendered volunteer services to the people on religious festivals. They started giving lectures from time to time to rouse the consciousness of the people. When Shukra Raj Shastri was arrested, other members soon went underground.
PRAJA PARISAD:
During the regime of Juddha Shumser, a secret political party "Praja Parisad" was formed in 1993 B.S. at Om Bahal Tole in Kathmandu. The leading members of the party were Tanka Prasad Acharya, Ram Hari Sharma, Dasarath Chand, Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Jib Raj, Chudda Prasad etc. The aim of the party was to overthrow the Rana rule and establish a Democratic System of government under the leadership of kind Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Dev. This party worked very secretly for some years. Tribhuvan gave his moral support to the organisers of the party. The king gave them Rs.4000 I.C. to meet the expenses of the party. The Praja Parisad did much against the Rana rule. Soon, Juddha Shumsher became active in controlling the work of the Praja Parisad. He announced the reward of Rs.5000 to any one who would give the information about the Praja Parisad. After some times, Bak Pati Raj disclosed the whole secrecy of the party. So the members of the praja parisad were arrested. Them Juddha shumsher established a special court to deal with the prominent members of the praja parisad. According to the count decision in 1997 B.S Dharma Bhakta, Ganga Lal, Shukra Raj and Dasarath Chand were given death sentences, and Tanka Prasad Acharya, Ram Hari Sharma, Chuda Prasad and Govinda Prasad were given life imprisonment.
THE NEPALI CONGRESS :
On 15th of Kartik 2003 B.S some Nepali students of Benaras had established a party called "Akhil Nepali Rastriya Congress". The aim of that party was to overthrow the Rana rule and establish a democratic system under the leadership of the king. Bishweswar Prasad Koirala was the leader of that party. After some days the Congress members elected Devi Prasad Sapkota and Bala Chandra Sharma in the posts of president and vice president. A big conference of the Congress was held in Calcutta on 25th January 1947, in which leaders like Ganesh Man Singh ,Dilli Raman Regmi , and those political workers who had fled to India. joined to the conference. Many Indian leaders sent their good wishes to the conference and the party. The Calcutta meeting decided to establish congress office in Benaras and party's name was changed into "Nepali Rastriya (National) Congress". The Nepalese students who were studying in Benaras had established a 'Nepal students' Union' and gave their full support to the Nepali National Congress. Besides, the Nepalese organizations in India, like the 'Gorkha League' and the 'Young Gorkha' extended their full support and co-operation to the Nepali National Congress. The third Nepali Rastriya Congress conference was held at Darbhanga in March 1949. The Darbhanga conference decided to launch a country wide armed revolution in Nepal against the rule of the Ranas. But Mohan Shumsher met Bishweswor Prasad Koirala and requested to stop the country wide armed revolution. He promised to make constitutional reforms.
Towards the end of 1948, the Nepali Democratic Congress was founded in Calcutta by Mahendra Bikram Shah, Surya Prasad Upadhaya and Prem Bahadur Kansakar. Subarna Shumsher and Mahabir Shumsher had financially helped the Prajatantra (Democratic) Congress. Mahendra Bikram made a plan to launch a country-wide agitation. In the meantime, a group of the Nepali National Congress and Nepali Democratic Congress met together at Calcutta on 9th April 1950 and formed jointly the 'Nepali Congress'. Matrika Prasad Koirala was elected 'President' of the Nepali Congress. It was resolved that Matrika Prasad was to organize the party on a democratic pattern, while internally Bishweswar Prasad Koirala and Surarna Shumsher were to plan an armed revolution.
Then Ganesh Man Singh, Sunder Chalise and others came to Kathmandu with a view to win over the Nepalese army to the side of the Nepali Congress. Mohan Shumsher soon came to know of it, and he arrested them. Now the Ranas became very much alarmed. King Tribhuvan was in favour of the Congress. So, the movements of the king were also watched very closely.

THE BIRATNAGAR HARTAL :
The labourers of Biratnagar Jute Mills launched a strike on 4th March 1947. The labourers were inspired and led by the great leaders of the Nepali Congress, Tarani Prasad Koirala, Girija Prasad Koirala, Manmohan Adhikari, Gahendra Hari Sharma and Yubaraj Adhikari. Troops were sent from Kathmandu to suppress the strike, Bishweswar Prasad Koirala, Bal Chandra Sharma, Gopal Prasad, Girija Prasad Koirala, Manmohan Adhikari, Gehendra Hari Sharma, Tarani Prasad Koirala and others were arrested. Most of the demands of the workers of the Biratnagar Jute Mills were fulfilled. But the workers continued their strike under the leadership of Matrika Prasad Koirala. At last, the Rana troops opened fire on the peaceful procession of the labourers. As a result, some of the workers were killed, many were injured, and many workers were arrested.
THE JOGBANI CONFERENCE :
The members of the Nepali Congress decided to launch a country-wide movement if the arrested leaders were not released. The Rana Government did not release the leaders of the Nepali Congress. So, a conference, in which representatives from different places of Nepal took part, was held at Jobbani. According to the resolution of the conference, a country-wide movement was to be launched from 13th April, 1947. The Rana Government promised to fulfill their demands. So, Matrika Prasad Koirala, the Chairman of the Action Committee, called off the movement.
JAYANTU SANSKRITUM
Some students of the Sanskrit Pradhan Pathshala went to Benaras in 1947 to sit for the examination of Benaras Hindu University. There they were influenced by the doctrines and activities of the Nepali Congress. They became politically conscious, and when they came back to Nepal, they demanded that in the Sanskrit Pradhan Pathshala, certain other subjects besides Sanskrit, should be taught. They demanded that History, Geography, Politics, etc. should be included in their course of study. Till then, only Sanskrit was taught in that Pathshala. Their demand was not fulfilled. The strike of the Sanskrit students took a serious turn. They walked around the streets of Kathmandu begging alms and shouting the slogans 'Jayantu Sanskritum.' Many students were arrested and 14 of them were exiled.
THE NEPALI PRAJA PANCHAYAT :
Padma Shumsher had prepared a Constitution and made it public on 26th January 1948. Soon after the historic announcement of the Constitution, the `Nepali Congress' was declared illegal on 18th April 1948. So, some young men of Kathmandu like Tripubar Singh, Gopal Prasad Rimal, Bijaya Bahadur Malla and Gopal Das formed a party named 'Nepali Praja Panchayat' on 12th October, 1948. The Nepali Praja Panchayat was established under the provisions of the Constitution given by Padma Shumsher. But Mohan Shumsher, when he became the Prime Minister, did not allow this party to function and he arrested most of the leaders of the Nepali Praja Panchayat. In fact, he did not want any party to be formed and work even within the framework of the Constitution.
In the mean time, Bishweswar Prasad Koirala, Kedar Man Byathit and Krishna Prasad Bhattarai came to Kathmandu and gave impetus to the movements started under the Nepali Praja Panchayat. Bishweswar Prasad Koirala was arrested for the second time. Kedar Man and Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, however, managed to escape to India. Finding no other way, Mohan Shumsher released Bishweswar Prasad Koirala.
THE BAIRAGANIA RESOLUTION:
Mohan Shumsher followed the policy of ruthless suppression. Seeing his attitude, the leaders of the Nepali Congress met in a conference at Baigania on 26th September, to 28th September 1950. A resolution was passed, adopting the way of violent revolution. Matrika Prasad Koirala, the president, was vested with full power of leadership for the period of the insurrection.
LEAVING THE PALACE BY KING TRIBHUVAN:
King Tribhuvan saw that his life was at stake. He wanted to abdicate in favour of his son Mahendra and go to Europe. But he was not allowed to do so. So, he escaped on 6th November 1950 and sought asylum in the Indian Embassy at Kathmandu along with members of the Royal family. Mohan Shumsher tried his best to make the king come back. But he was not successful. Mohan Shumsher called an emergency meeting on 7th November 1950 at Singha Durbar. In that meeting he announced Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah as the new king of Nepal. In the afternoon, on the same day, Prince Gyandendra Bir Bikram Shah was brought to Hanuman Dhoka Palace and crowned as the king of Nepal. Upon this step of Mohan Shumsher, people became more rebellious. The government of India and England and other countries did not recognize this. On 10th November, two Indian aeroplanes landed at Gauchar Airport and flew back to Delhi with the Royal family. King Tribhuvan was formally welcomed by the Indian prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and other high officials.
THE ARMED REVOLUTION:
After the departure of King Tribhuvan to Delhi, the Nepali Congress openly started an armed revolution. On 10th November 1950, pamphlets and leaflets were scattered and on the same night the Liberation Forces of the Nepali Congress led by Thir Bam Malla and Puran Singh made a surprise attack and captured Birgunj and made prisoner of its Governor, Som Shumsher. On 17th November 1950, the insurgents met the Rana troops led by General Yek Raj Shumsher at Parwanipur. Because of the shortage of ammunition, they made a hasty retreat. On 18th November, a big procession of farmers staged a demonstration in Gaur Bazaar. But they were dispersed by the Rana forces. The leader of the procession, Shiva Prasad was killed, and many other persons fell victim to the firing.
On the western front, the insurgents had a remarkable success. Dr. Kunwar Indrajit Singh attacked Bhairahawa. The jails were broken and the Government House was attacked. In the meantime, the insurgent forces got victories at Dang Deukhuri, Jajarkot, Musikot, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Palpa, Gorkha, and other places. The people's government was established in all these place. Rudra Shumsher was made Governor of Palpa.
In the eastern front, also, the insurgents fought bravely Biratnagar, Jhapa, Udaypur, Pashupatinagar, Dhankuta and Bhojpur all fell into the hands of the Nepali Congress and a people's government was established there.
On 3rd December 1950, a delegation of Frank Roberts, the British Deputy High Commission for India and Easter Denning came to Nepal to study the political situation. A big crowd had gathered at Gausher Air[port, and they attacked the visitors, shouting slogans in favour of the exiled king. To disperse the crowd, lathi charges were made, tear gas was used and fire was opened on the demonstrators. Bhogendra Man Singh and Debendra Man were shot dead and many other were wounded. All these events created sendation, not on in nepal but also in other countries.
THE DELHI AGREEMENT:
On November 22, 1950, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, Officially announced that India was not going to recognize Gyanendra Bir Bikram As the rightful king of Nepal. When Mohan Shumsher saw that the situation was out of his control, he sent Kaisher Shumsher and Bijaya Shumsher to New Delhi for a peace talk In New Delhi, King Tribhuvan, representatives of Nepali Congress and of the Rana Government all sat together to discuss the situation. At last an agreement was reached according to which King Tribhuvan want to form a new ministry, under his leadership, consisting of the Nepali Congress and the Ranas on an equal basis, King Tribhuvan flew back to Nepal, along with the members of the Royal family and the leaders of the Congress Party on 15th February, 1951. On 18th Dec. (7th of Falgun, 2007) the coalition ministry was formed on a parity basis-five from the Ranas and five form the Congress.
Thus the century old family autocracy of the Ranas came to an end and Democracy was introduced under the active leadership of King Tribhuvan

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